Registers

The registers are part of a user area stored in the context structure used by the scheduler. This structure can be manipulated to get and set the values of those registers, and, for example, on Intel hosts, it is possible to directly manipulate DR0-DR7 hardware registers to set hardware breakpoints.

There are different commands to get values of registers. For the General Purpose ones use:

[0x4A13B8C0]> dr
r15 = 0x00000000
r14 = 0x00000000
r13 = 0x00000000
r12 = 0x00000000
rbp = 0x00000000
rbx = 0x00000000
r11 = 0x00000000
r10 = 0x00000000
r9 = 0x00000000
r8 = 0x00000000
rax = 0x00000000
rcx = 0x00000000
rdx = 0x00000000
rsi = 0x00000000
rdi = 0x00000000
oeax = 0x0000003b
rip = 0x7f20bf5df630
rsp = 0x7fff515923c0

[0x7f0f2dbae630]> dr?rip ; get value of 'rip'
0x7f0f2dbae630

[0x4A13B8C0]> dr rip = esp   ; set 'rip' as esp

Interaction between a plugin and the core is done by commands returning radare instructions. This is used, for example, to set flags in the core to set values of registers.

[0x7f0f2dbae630]> dr*      ; Appending '*' will show radare commands
f r15 1 0x0
f r14 1 0x0
f r13 1 0x0
f r12 1 0x0
f rbp 1 0x0
f rbx 1 0x0
f r11 1 0x0
f r10 1 0x0
f r9 1 0x0
f r8 1 0x0
f rax 1 0x0
f rcx 1 0x0
f rdx 1 0x0
f rsi 1 0x0
f rdi 1 0x0
f oeax 1 0x3b
f rip 1 0x7fff73557940
f rflags 1 0x200
f rsp 1 0x7fff73557940


[0x4A13B8C0]> .dr*  ; include common register values in flags

An old copy of registers is stored all the time to keep track of the changes done during execution of a program being analyzed. This old copy can be accessed with oregs.

  [0x7f1fab84c630]> dro
  r15 = 0x00000000
  r14 = 0x00000000
  r13 = 0x00000000
  r12 = 0x00000000
  rbp = 0x00000000
  rbx = 0x00000000
  r11 = 0x00000000
  r10 = 0x00000000
  r9 = 0x00000000
  r8 = 0x00000000
  rax = 0x00000000
  rcx = 0x00000000
  rdx = 0x00000000
  rsi = 0x00000000
  rdi = 0x00000000
  oeax = 0x0000003b
  rip = 0x7f1fab84c630
  rflags = 0x00000200
  rsp = 0x7fff386b5080


  [0x7f1fab84c630]> dr
  r15 = 0x00000000
  r14 = 0x00000000
  r13 = 0x00000000
  r12 = 0x00000000
  rbp = 0x00000000
  rbx = 0x00000000
  r11 = 0x00000000
  r10 = 0x00000000
  r9 = 0x00000000
  r8 = 0x00000000
  rax = 0x00000000
  rcx = 0x00000000
  rdx = 0x00000000
  rsi = 0x00000000
  rdi = 0x7fff386b5080
  oeax = 0xffffffffffffffff
  rip = 0x7f1fab84c633
  rflags = 0x00000202
  rsp = 0x7fff386b5080

Values stored in eax, oeax and eip have changed.

To store and restore register values you can just dump the output of 'dr*' command to disk and then re-interpret it again:

[0x4A13B8C0]> dr* > regs.saved ; save registers
[0x4A13B8C0]> drp regs.saved ; restore

EFLAGS can be similarly altered. E.g., setting selected flags:

[0x4A13B8C0]> dr eflags = pst
[0x4A13B8C0]> dr eflags = azsti

You can get a string which represents latest changes of registers using drd command (diff registers):

[0x4A13B8C0]> drd
oeax = 0x0000003b was 0x00000000 delta 59
rip = 0x7f00e71282d0 was 0x00000000 delta -418217264
rflags = 0x00000200 was 0x00000000 delta 512
rsp = 0x7fffe85a09c0 was 0x00000000 delta -396752448

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